Lower Egypt

In ancient times, the northern region of Egypt, often called Lower Egypt, was dominated by the extensive Nile River Delta and covered with uncultivated brush and papyrus. The Delta continually expanded and changed shape throughout Egypt’s history, as did the many branches of the Nile River. The Pelusaic branch, located at the eastern extreme of […]

Israel under the Maccabees

As the Seleucid Empire continued to lose land to rival powers and internal revolts, Antiochus IV Epiphanes sought to unify his diverse domain by forcing Greek religious and political practices upon all his subjects (1 Maccabees 1; 2 Maccabees 6-7). Eventually his harsh policies fomented open rebellion by faithful Jews under the leadership of Mattathias […]

Jerusalem during the Later Old Testament

The Babylonians destroyed the city of Jerusalem and the Temple of the Lord in 586 B.C. and exiled many Judeans to Babylon (2 Kings 25:1-21; 2 Chronicles 36:17-21; Jeremiah 39:1-10; 52:1-30). Several decades later (539 B.C.), King Cyrus of Persia conquered Babylon and declared that the Judean exiles were free to return to Judah and […]

Macedonia

Though the region of Macedonia in northern Greece was located nearly a thousand miles from Jerusalem, it had an indirect impact on the events of the New Testament and the ministry of the apostle Paul. Macedonia is never directly mentioned in the Old Testament, which came to a close with nearly the entire world of […]