Cities of the Lycus Valley: Hierapolis, Laodicea, and Colosse

The cities of Hierapolis, Laodicea, and Colosse–all of which are referenced in Colossians 4:13–were located within about 12 miles (19 km) of each other along the Lycus River in the region of Phrygia. Two main Roman roads heading east joined at Laodicea and continued on to Apamea and Iconium. Though Paul almost certainly passed through […]

Galilee throughout Bible Times

Throughout Bible times, nature and history combined to make the region of Galilee in northern Israel a land of great diversity. Galilee’s mountainous terrain is covered with lush vegetation made possible by the region’s abundant rainfall. Upper Galilee, which was occupied by the tribe of Naphtali, is home to the highest mountains in Israel west […]

Illyricum

Though the book of Acts undoubtedly provides an accurate account of the apostle Paul’s journeys, a careful study of Paul’s letters suggests that Acts must not be an exhaustive account. This can be seen most clearly in Paul’s mention in Romans 15:19 of preaching the gospel “from Jerusalem all the way around to Illyricum.” Paul’s […]

Lands beyond Persia

Though the lands beyond Persia are explicitly mentioned only a few times in the Bible (Esther 1:1; 8:9; Acts 2:9), these lands affected–and were affected by–biblical events in significant ways. The book of Esther notes that the domain of the Persian Empire stretched from India (its eastern border) to Cush (its western border; not shown […]